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Risk Phrases

1.Risk Phrases

Risk Phrases


Chemical data sheets available in many countries now contain codes for certain "risk phrases", shown as R23, R45 etc. These risk phrase codes have the following meanings:

    • R1 Explosive when dry.
    • R2 Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other source of ignition.
    • R3 Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition.
    • R4 Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds.
    • R5 Heating may cause an explosion.
    • R6 Explosive with or without contact with air.
    • R7 May cause fire.
    • R8 Contact with combustible material may cause fire.
    • R9 Explosive when mixed with combustible material.
    • R10 Flammable.
    • R11 Highly flammable.
    • R12 Extremely flammable.
    • R13 Extremely flammable liquefied gas
    • R14 Reacts violently with water.
    • R15 Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.
    • R16 Explosive when mixed with oxidizing substances.
    • R17 Spontaneously flammable in air.
    • R18 In use, may form inflammable/explosive vapour-air mixture.
    • R19 May form explosive peroxides.
    • R20 Harmful by inhalation.
    • R21 Harmful in contact with skin.
    • R22 Harmful if swallowed.
    • R23 Toxic by inhalation.
    • R24 Toxic in contact with skin.
    • R25 Toxic if swallowed.
    • R26 Very toxic by inhalation.
    • R27 Very toxic in contact with skin.
    • R28 Very toxic if swallowed.
    • R29 Contact with water liberates toxic gas.
    • R30 Can become highly flammable in use.
    • R31 Contact with acids liberates toxic gas.
    • R32 Contact with acid liberates very toxic gas.
    • R33 Danger of cumulative effects.
    • R34 Causes burns.
    • R35 Causes severe burns.
    • R36 Irritating to eyes.
    • R37 Irritating to respiratory system.
    • R38 Irritating to skin.
    • R39 Danger of very serious irreversible effects.
    • R40 Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
    • R41 Risk of serious damage to the eyes.
    • R42 May cause sensitization by inhalation.
    • R43 May cause sensitization by skin contact.
    • R44 Risk of explosion if heated under confinement.
    • R45 May cause cancer.
    • R46 May cause heritable genetic damage.
    • R47 May cause birth defects
    • R48 Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.
    • R49 May cause cancer by inhalation.
    • R50 Very toxic to aquatic organisms.
    • R51 Toxic to aquatic organisms.
    • R52 Harmful to aquatic organisms.
    • R53 May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
    • R54 Toxic to flora.
    • R55 Toxic to fauna.
    • R56 Toxic to soil organisms.
    • R57 Toxic to bees.
    • R58 May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment.
    • R59 Dangerous to the ozone layer.
    • R60 May impair fertility.
    • R61 May cause harm to the unborn child.
    • R62 Risk of impaired fertility.
    • R63 Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.
    • R64 May cause harm to breastfed babies.
    • R65 Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed.
    • R66 Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.
    • R67 Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
    • R68 Possible risk of irreversible effects.

It is current safety policy at MiniScience Inc. that a written COSHH assessment must be provided when a substance to be used has been assigned any of the risk phrases R42, R43, R45, R46, R48, R49, R60 or R61. Other hazards may also dictate the preparation of a suitable COSHH assessment.

This information was last updated on February 17, 2006. We have tried to make it as accurate and useful as possible, but can take no responsibility for its use, misuse, or accuracy. We have not verified this information, and cannot guarantee that it is up-to-date.

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